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History of Catalonia - before Franco 5
By Vincent Esclusa

  1. 9th Century

    Birth of Barcelona

    "County of Barcelona formed along with several other counties as a result of efforts by Charlemagne to establish a buffer zone between his Frankish Empire and Muslim-ruled Spain."

  2. 1023 - 1076

    Fist Catalan Constitution: Usatges

    "Under Ramon Berenguer I, the county of Barcelona acquires a dominant position in the area. Ramon Berenguer I also instores the Usatges, the first Catalan Constituion which aimed to establish peace and wealth."

  3. 12th - 13th Century

    Union of Catalonia and Aragon

    "Reign of Ramon Berenguer IV, whose marriage to Queen Petronilla of Aragon results in the county’s dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragon. Although part of the Crown of Aragon, Catalonia keeps its own traditional rights and parliament, the Corts catalanes."

  4. 14th - 15th Century

    Expansion of the Kingdom of Aragon

    "Aragon acquires the kingdoms of Sardinia, Sicily and Naples, becoming a major Mediterranean maritime empire as a result."

  5. 1469

    Integration in the Kingdom of Spain

    "Ferdinand I of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile marry, creating a dynastic union of their kingdoms and laying the foundations of the Kingdom of Spain."

  6. 1640 - 1652

    The Reapers’ War

    "The Reapers’ War - Catalonia revolts against the taxation policies of Philip IV of Spain, is briefly declared a republic under French protection before being reoccupied by Spanish troops."

  7. 1705 - 1714

    War of the Spanish Succession

    "Catalonia’s support for rival claimant to the Spanish throne, Archduke Charles of Austria, of the House of Habsburg, against King Philip V, from the House of Bourbon, results in the suppression of its parliament and traditional liberties upon the latter’s victory."

  8. 1716

    The Nueva Planta

    "The Nueva Planta decree dismantles the separate Catalan legal system, brings Catalonia under direct rule from Madrid and abolishes the administrative use of the Catalan language."

  9. 1808 - 1833

    Carlist War

    "Catalonia becomes the scene of some of the fiercest fighting of the First Carlist War between the liberal supporters of Queen Isabella II and the absolutist supporters of her uncle and rival, the Infante Carlos."

  10. 19th Century

    Catalan Industrialisation

    "Catalonia is at the forefront of industrialisation in Spain and experiences a cultural renaissance; start of a movement to revive Catalan culture and language, leading to the rise of Catalan nationalism."

  11. 1913

    More autonomy is given

    "The four provinces of Catalonia are given limited joint self-government in the Commonwealth of Catalonia under the leadership of Enric Prat de la Riba."

  12. 1925

    Primo de Rivera Dictatorship

    "The Commonwealth is suppressed during the dictatorship of Spanish Prime Minister Miguel Primo de Rivera."

  13. 1931

    Birth of the Generalitat de Catalunya

    "Spain becomes a republic; an autonomous Catalan regional government, the Generalitat, is created under the leadership of the Revolutionary Left of Catalonia."

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