"At this time most teachers were men called schoolmasters. They taught reading, writing, arithmetick, and the Latin tongue. This was considered a stepping stone for a career in church or law. They were usually farmers or innkeepers in the off season who taught for a couple months."
"Horace Mann was a reformer who advocated for schools to be more democratic, universal, and non-sectarian. Common school were spreading everywhere but there was not enough schoolmasters to teach in them. Women started teaching in the classroom."
"Normal School was training for teachers to prepare them for their work in Common Schools. It provided them more of an education beyond simple grammar school education. It was a norm for all teachers for level of quality teaching. The first was in Lexington, Massachusetts in 1839."
"Women for decades had taught at Dame Schools for the youngest children. Women at this time were more educated with a high degree of literacy. The Common Schools were hesitant on hiring women based on their femininity. They were paid a third of mens pay but seen as maternal."
"The National Education Association was a policy organization for teachers that has influence on schools. Their goal is to protect the rights of teachers of getting treated fairly. They elevate and advance the teaching profession."
"The American Federation of Teachers purpose is to have teachers have fairness, democracy, economic opportunity, and quality public education for students. It was founded in 1916 in Winnetka, Illinois by small group of teachers from three different unions."
"Women teachers gained better pay, pensions, and tenure. Women held higher positions such as principals and superintendents but men still dominated the administration. John Dewy became the standard- bearer of progressive education who wanted democracy in classrooms."
"The African American educators had many significant obstacles. Viola Duval Stewart challenged the unequal pay between black and white teachers in the town of Charleston, North Carolina. She won the suit with the help of Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP. Most school were segregated"
"This suit started with parents in Topeka arguing that segregated schools were unequal. The Supreme Court agreed and announced that schools must desegregate “with all deliberate speed”. It took some school around 10 to 15 years to be integrated."
"Teachers were now more militant, battling for civil rights, anti-poverty programs, and end of Vietnam war. The Union had problems with over collective bargaining rights, school funding with pay and benefit issues. American schools were seen as failing teachers are responsible."
"This suit took place in Charlotte, North Carolina because children were not allowed to attend the city’s white schools. The Supreme Court stated all black and white schools must not have deliberate policies of segregation."
"This movement took different forms including curriculum, teacher training, performance, and student achievement. Teachers faced issues of classroom autonomy, social forces such as poverty and compensation. They want their students to succeed on assessments."
"Women made up 75 percent of teachers but the administrators were mainly male. They had decreased power with controlling authority while their teacher autonomy was declining. Teachers were paid badly and didn’t have much pension, benefits, or job security."
"People put their faith into standardized exam for both teachers and students.These test were designed to indicate whether knowledge was absorbed by students. Others believe that we have too much standardization. We need more individualized approach for teaching."